Increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease, obstructive bronchiolitis, and alopecia with busulfan versus total body irradiation: long-term results of a randomized trial in allogeneic marrow recipients with leukemia. Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group.
Author(s): Ringden O, Remberger M, Ruutu T, Nikoskelainen J, Volin L, Vindelov L, Parkkali T, Lenhoff S, Sallerfors B, Mellander L, Ljungman P, Jacobsen N
Affiliation(s): Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and the Department of Hematology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 1999-04-01, Blood., 93(7):2196-201.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
Leukemic patients receiving marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors were randomized to treatment with either busulfan 16 mg/kg (n = 88) or total body irradiation ([TBI] n = 79) in addition to cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. The patients were observed for a period of 5 to 9 years. Busulfan-treated patients had an increased risk of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver (12% v 1%, P =.01) and hemorrhagic cystitis (32% v 10%, P =.003). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was similar in the two groups, but the 7-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 59% in the busulfan-treated group versus 47% in the TBI group (P =.05). Death from GVHD was more common in the busulfan group (22% v 3%, P <.001). Obstructive bronchiolitis occurred in 26% of the busulfan patients but in only 5% of the TBI patients (P <.01). Complete alopecia developed in 8 busulfan patients and partial alopecia in 17, versus five with partial alopecia in the TBI group (P <.001). Cataracts occurred in 5 busulfan-treated patients and 16 TBI patients (P =.02). The incidence of relapse after 7 years was 29% in both groups. Seven-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients with early disease was 21% in the busulfan group and 12% in the TBI group. In patients with more advanced disease, the corresponding figures were 64% and 22%, respectively (P =.004). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) in patients with early disease was 68% in busulfan-treated patients and 66% in TBI patients. However, 7-year LFS in patients with more advanced disease was 17% in the busulfan group versus 49% in the TBI group (P <.01). In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase, 7-year LFS was 72% and 83% in the two groups, respectively.