Full-mouth ultrasonic debridement associated with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of severe chronic periodontitis.
Author(s): Ribeiro Edel P, Bittencourt S, Zanin IC, Bovi Ambrosano GM, Sallum EA, Nociti FH, Goncalves RB, Casati MZ
Affiliation(s): Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
Publication date & source: 2009-08, J Periodontol., 80(8):1254-64.
Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adjunctive clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of the systemic administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the full-mouth ultrasonic debridement of patients with severe chronic periodontitis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients presenting at least eight teeth with probing depth (PD) > or =5 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) were selected and randomly assigned to full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + placebo (control group) or full-mouth ultrasonic debridement + amoxicillin and metronidazole (test group). The clinical outcomes evaluated were visible plaque index, BOP, position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), and PD. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for quantitative analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique permitted the detection of prostaglandin E(2,) interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels in gingival crevicular fluid. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. RESULTS: At 6 months, the test treatment resulted in lower BOP and an additional reduction (0.83 mm) in PD (P <0.05). Data also showed RAL gain > or =2 mm at 43.52% of sites in control patients compared to 58.03% of sites in test patients (P <0.05). However, both groups had similar mean RAL gain (1.68 and 1.88 mm for the control and test groups, respectively). Real-time PCR and ELISA failed to identify significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements; however, there was a slight, but significantly greater, improvement in BOP and the percentage of sites with PD > or =5 mm exhibiting RAL gain > or =2 mm in the test group. Nevertheless, no improvement in the microbiologic or immunologic outcome was observed with the adjunctive use of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole.