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A prospective randomized trial on the role of perioperative celecoxib administration for total knee arthroplasty: improving clinical outcomes.

Author(s): Reuben SS, Buvenandran A, Katz B, Kroin JS

Affiliation(s): Department of Anesthesiology, Baystate Medical Center and the Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, MA 01199, USA. scott.reuben@bhs.org

Publication date & source: 2008-04, Anesth Analg., 106(4):1258-64, table of contents.

Publication type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with considerable postoperative pain, which, if unrelieved, may result in prolonged hospital stay, inability to participate in rehabilitation programs, poor outcomes, and greater use of healthcare resources. The hypothesis of this study is that perioperative administration of celecoxib will improve analgesic efficacy, with a resultant improvement in short- and long-term clinical outcomes after TKA. METHODS: We studied 200 patients undergoing elective TKA in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. All patients underwent a similar perioperative anesthetic/analgesic procedure. After completion of surgery, patients were started on an epidural infusion with patient-controlled epidural analgesia. Patients were instructed to keep their numerical rating score pain < or = 3. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: celecoxib or placebo. The celecoxib group received celecoxib 100 mg orally twice a day 7 days before surgery. On the day of surgery, celecoxib 400 mg was administered 1-2 h before surgery and then 200 mg every 12 h for 10 postoperative days. The control group received matching placebo capsules at the same times. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the perioperative use of celecoxib reduces the amount of postoperative opioid consumption. Secondary objectives were to determine whether celecoxib is associated with improved clinical outcomes and a reduction in opioid-related adverse effects. RESULTS: The celecoxib group required less patient-controlled epidural analgesia over the 40-h postoperative period: placebo 232.8 +/- 2.0 mL, celecoxib 209.1 +/- 1.8 mL (P < 0.001). At home over days 4-10 after surgery, the celecoxib group had reduced pain intensity with movement (F = 109.7, P < 0.001) at all time points. The celecoxib group also consumed less oxycodone at home than placebo group (F = 417.8, P < 0.001). With active movement, range of motion (ROM) differed between the two groups over postoperative days 1-3 (F = 50.7, P < 0.001), with the celecoxib group having greater ROM at all time points. There was earlier achievement of 90 degrees knee flexion with celecoxib compared with placebo (P < 0.001). Celecoxib patients had a better overall Knee Society Score (93.3 +/- 0.6) than placebo patients (86.4 +/- 0.9) at 12-mo follow-up (P < 0.001). The incidence of side effects (nausea, vomiting, and pruritus) in the immediate postoperative period was less in the celecoxib group. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative use of celecoxib reduces postoperative pain, opioid consumption, opioid-related adverse effects, and is associated with long-term benefits including improved knee function and less time to achieve effective knee ROM after TKA.

Page last updated: 2008-03-26

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