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Loop Diuretics Increase Bone Turnover and Decrease BMD in Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women: Results From a Randomized Controlled Study With Bumetanide.

Author(s): Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L

Affiliation(s): Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Publication date & source: 2006-01, J Bone Miner Res., 21(1):163-70. Epub 2005 Oct 10.

To study effects of loop diuretics on bone, 87 women were randomized to 1 year of treatment with bumetanide or placebo. Compared with placebo, bumetanide decreased BMD by 2% at the total hip and by 1.4% at the whole body. Levels of biochemical bone markers were lower in the placebo than in the bumetanide group. Thus, treatment with loop diuretics affects bone metabolism. INTRODUCTION: Loop diuretics may affect bone because they increase the renal calcium excretion and alters the diurnal rhythm of plasma PTH levels. We studied the effects of 1 year of treatment with the loop diuretic bumetanide on bone metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blinded design, 87 healthy postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to 1-year bumetanide treatment 2 mg/day or placebo. BMD, plasma levels of calcitropic hormones, and biochemical bone markers were measured at baseline, after 1 year of treatment (week 52), and 6 months after withdrawal of treatment (week 78). Calcium (800 mg/day) and vitamin D (10 mug/day) were administered to all participants during the entire 1.5-year study period. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, urinary calcium (+17%) and plasma PTH levels (+9%) increased significantly in response to bumetanide. After 1 year of treatment, BMD in the bumetanide compared with the placebo group was significantly decreased by 2% at the total hip and ultradistal forearm and by 1.4% at the whole body. In addition, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover differed significantly ( approximately 20%) between groups, with lower levels in the placebo than in the bumetanide group. Six months after the end of treatment, the effects of bumetanide were weakening. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with loop diuretics affects bone turnover and decreases BMD. Further studies may reveal whether loop diuretics should be considered as a risk factor for fracture.

Page last updated: 2006-01-31

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