A pilot study of newer antidepressant concentrations in cord and maternal serum and possible effects in the neonate.
Author(s): Rampono J, Proud S, Hackett LP, Kristensen JH, Ilett KF
Affiliation(s): Department of Psychological Medicine, Womens and Childrens Health Service Subiaco, WA, Australia. Jonathan.Rampono@health.wa.gov.au
Publication date & source: 2004-09, Int J Neuropsychopharmacol., 7(3):329-34. Epub 2004 Mar 22.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Antidepressants are often used antenatally, and placental transfer may lead to adverse effects (toxicity) in the neonate. Pregnant women taking fluoxetine (n=4), sertraline (n=4), paroxetine (n=2) or venlafaxine (n=1) in the last trimester were studied. Maternal and cord sera were collected at delivery and infant serum on day 5 after birth for measurement of antidepressant concentrations. Neonatal Abstinence Scores (NAS) were measured in the infants on days 13 after birth. In maternal serum, median drug concentrations were: fluoxetine (96 microg/l), norfluoxetine (110 microg/l), sertraline (11 microg/l), desmethylsertraline (38 microg/l), paroxetine (mean 12 microg/l), venlafaxine (220 microg/l), and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (392 microg/l). Corresponding median values in cord serum were: fluoxetine (65 microg/l), norfluoxetine (81 microg/l), sertraline (10 microg/l), desmethylsertraline (27 microg/l), paroxetine (mean 6 microg/l), venlafaxine (232 microg/l), and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (406 microg/l). Corresponding median cord:maternal concentration ratios were 0.67 for fluoxetine and 0.72 for norfluoxetine, 0.67 for sertraline and 0.63 for demethylsertraline, 0.52 (mean) for paroxetine, and 1.1 and 1.0 for venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine respectively. The neonates of two patients taking fluoxetine had high NAS. Only fluoxetine and norfluoxetine were detected in infant serum. Our data show substantial placental transfer of antidepressants, but only fluoxetine persisted in the infants serum. Neonatal toxicity may be associated with serotonin uptake blockade, and also be influenced by neonatal clearance.