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Does esomeprazole prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting?

Author(s): Raeder J, Dahl V, Bjoernestad E, Edlund G, Modin S, Naucler E, Bergheim R, Kilhamn J

Affiliation(s): Department of Anaesthesia, Aleris Hospital AS/University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. johan.rader@medisin.uio.no

Publication date & source: 2007-02, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand., 51(2):217-25. Epub 2006 Nov 10.

Publication type: Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

BACKGROUND: Esomeprazole is a potent proton pump inhibitor (PPI), reducing acid production as well as gastric juice volume. This study evaluated the possible beneficial effect of esomeprazole on reducing post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). METHODS: Patients undergoing laparoscopic or open gynaecological surgery, or laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive three peri-operative doses double blindly of either esomeprazole 40 mg or placebo, given intravenously or orally. All patients were given a standardized anaesthesia regimen including fentanyl and sevoflurane/nitrous oxide. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 284 patients. Demographic data and known PONV risk factors were similar for the two treatment groups. PONV was observed in 77% of patients on esomeprazole vs. 81% on placebo (NS) and rescue antiemetic medication was needed in 56% vs. 53%, respectively (NS). The proportion of patients that vomited during 0-24 h was lower on esomeprazole than placebo (38% vs. 49%; NS), and the mean amount of vomit was significantly lower (52 vs. 86 g; P < 0.05). The use of neostigmine, use of opioids and type of surgery were significant risk factors for PONV (P < 0.05). The 24-h incidence of PONV was 63% after laparoscopic gynaecology, 80% after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 88% after open gynaecological laparotomy, whereas laparoscopic cholecystectomy had the lowest risk when corrected for other risk factors of PONV. CONCLUSION: Esomeprazole had no clinically relevant effect on the overall 24-h incidence of PONV. However, esomeprazole significantly reduced the total amount of vomit during 24-h post-operatively. This may be of value in patients with an increased risk of pulmonary aspiration.

Page last updated: 2007-05-03

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