Pioglitazone vs glimepiride: Differential effects on vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Author(s): Papathanassiou K, Naka KK, Kazakos N, Kanioglou C, Makriyiannis D, Pappas K, Katsouras CS, Liveris K, Kolettis T, Tsatsoulis A, Michalis LK
Affiliation(s): Michaelidion Cardiac Center, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
Publication date & source: 2009-07, Atherosclerosis., 205(1):221-6. Epub 2008 Dec 6.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of glimepiride and pioglitazone on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes already on metformin. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes already on metformin, without known cardiovascular disease, were randomized in 2 groups; glimepiride (4 mg od) was added in group A (n=14) and pioglitazone (30 mg od) in group B (n=14) for 6 months. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery was assessed in all patients, at baseline and at follow-up. RESULTS: The 2 groups did not differ in age (mean+/-S.D., 63.6+/-7.3 years vs 62.8+/-7.2 years respectively), or any measured variable at baseline. Fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin improved similarly in both groups. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the absolute changes observed at follow-up in waist circumference, +1.86+/-3.11 cm vs -1.86+/-1.88 cm in groups A and B respectively; fasting insulin levels, +14.79+/-12.56 pmol/L vs -25.84+/-28.09 pmol/L; homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), +0.66+/-1.01 vs -1.83+/-1.38; HDL cholesterol levels, -0.07+/-0.22 mmol/L vs +0.14+/-0.20 mmol/L and FMD, +0.14+/-1.09% vs +2.02+/-2.05% (p<0.05 for all). The only independent predictor factor of the FMD improvement was treatment-induced changes in HOMA (R(2): 0.488, slope: -0.782, [95% CI: -1.128, -0.436], p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes already on metformin, addition of pioglitazone as compared to glimepiride, improved endothelial function despite similar glycemic control. The improvement in endothelial function was mainly due to a reduction in insulin resistance.