ARB candesartan and CCB amlodipine in hypertensive patients: the CASE-J trial.
Author(s): Ogihara T, Fujimoto A, Nakao K, Saruta T, CASE-J Trial Group
Affiliation(s): Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.
Publication date & source: 2008-10, Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther., 6(9):1195-201.
The Candesartan Antihypertensive Survival Evaluation in Japan (CASE-J) trial was a comparative study of the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan, and a calcium channel blocker (CCB), amlodipine, regarding the incidence of cardiovascular events in high-risk Japanese hypertensive patients. The study design was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group comparison study with a response-dependent dose titration and blinded assessment of the end point. The CASE-J trial enrolled 4728 patients, with a mean age of 63.8 years and a mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2), who were randomly assigned to either candesartan- or amlodipine-based treatment regimens. Blood pressure was well controlled to the level of less than 140/80 mmHg in both of the treatment regimens. During 3.2 years of follow-up, primary cardiovascular events occurred in 134 patients in each of the two treatment-based regimens, resulting in no significant difference in the incidence of cardiovascular events between them (hazard ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.79-1.28; p = 0.969). In 404 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, a significantly larger decrease in left ventricular mass index 3 years after enrollment was observed in candesartan-based (n = 205) than amlodipine-based (n = 199) regimens (-22.9 vs -13.4 g/m(2), respectively; p = 0.023). Furthermore, new-onset diabetes occurred in fewer patients taking candesartan than in those taking amlodipine, resulting in a 36% relative risk reduction (p = 0.030). The CASE-J trial demonstrated that both an ARB, candesartan, and a CCB, amlodipine, equally suppressed the incidence of cardiovascular events. The ARB may confer more beneficial effects to hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or for those at-risk of diabetes than CCB.