A prospective comparison of three argatroban treatment regimens during hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease.
Author(s): Murray PT, Reddy BV, Grossman EJ, Hammes MS, Trevino S, Ferrell J, Tang I, Hursting MJ, Shamp TR, Swan SK
Affiliation(s): Nephrology Section, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60657, USA. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 2004-12, Kidney Int., 66(6):2446-53.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND: We prospectively evaluated 3 treatment regimens of argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, for providing adequate, safe anticoagulation in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during hemodialysis. METHODS: In this randomized, 3-way crossover study, ESRD patients underwent hemodialysis sessions of 3- or 4-hour duration using high-flux membranes and each of 3 argatroban treatment regimens (A: 250-microg/kg bolus, with an additional 250-microg/kg bolus allowed; B: 250-microg/kg bolus followed by 2-microg/kg/min infusion; C: steady-state, 2-microg/kg/min infusion initiated 4 hours before dialysis). Pharmacodynamic effects including activated clotting times (ACTs); hemodialysis efficacy including single-pool Kt/V, urea reduction ratio (URR), and circuit flow; and safety through a 3-day follow-up were monitored. Argatroban pharmacokinetic parameters including dialytic clearance were evaluated during regimen C. RESULTS: Thirteen patients completed 38 hemodialysis sessions (1 patient withdrew consent after 2 sessions). Mean +/- SD ACTs increased from 131 +/- 14 seconds at baseline to 153 +/- 24, 200 +/- 30, and 197 +/- 33 seconds, respectively, after 60 minutes of hemodialysis using regimens A, B, and C. Across regimens, mean Kt/Vs (1.5-1.6) and URRs (70%-73%) were comparable. No dialyzer was changed; 1 session was shortened 15 minutes because of circuit clot formation. Systemic argatroban clearance increased approximately 20% during hemodialysis, without clinically significantly affecting ACTs. Upon argatroban discontinuation, ACTs and plasma argatroban decreased concurrently (elimination half-life, 35 +/- 6 min). No thrombosis, bleeding, serious adverse events, or clinically significant changes in vital signs or routine laboratory measures occurred. CONCLUSION: Argatroban, administered by each treatment regimen, provides safe, adequate anticoagulation to enable successful hemodialysis in ESRD patients. Argatroban dialytic clearance by high-flux membranes is clinically insignificant.