Addition of aerosolized deoxycholate amphotericin B to systemic prophylaxis to prevent airways invasive fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT: a single-center retrospective study.
Author(s): Morello E, Pagani L, Coser P, Cavattoni I, Cortelazzo S, Casini M, Billio A, Rossi G
Affiliation(s): Department of Hematology, Spedali Civili Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2011-01, Bone Marrow Transplant., 46(1):132-6. Epub 2010 Apr 12.
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) still pose major challenges in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), and effective antifungal prophylaxis remains a matter of debate. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the toxicity and the impact of aerosolized deoxycholate amphotericin B (aero-d-AmB) on respiratory tract IFIs (airways IFIs) in a homogeneous cohort of allogeneic HSCT patients, transplanted at one institution. Since 1999, 102 consecutive patients were transplanted from matched related (N = 71) or unrelated donor (MUD). Aero-d-AmB was administered for a median time of 16 days (range 2-45), in addition to systemic antifungal prophylaxis. Prolonged administration was neither associated with increased severe bacterial infections, nor with severe adverse events. In 16 patients in whom aero-d-AmB was delivered for less than 8 days, due to worsened clinical conditions or poor compliance, proven or probable airways IFIs were diagnosed in three cases (one mucormycosis and one fusariosis and one probable aspergillosis), whereas in 84 patients receiving aero-d-AmB for >/= 8 days, one possible and one probable aspergillosis were diagnosed. A shortened administration (< 8 days) of aero-d-AmB was therefore associated with an increased risk of both total airways IFIs (P = 0.027) and proven/probable IFIs (P = 0.012). At multivariate analysis prolonged aero-d-AmB administration retained an independent protective effect on airways IFIs (P = 0.026) whereas a MUD transplant was associated with a borderline increase of IFIs risk (P=0.052). Overall, 95.1% of patients did not experience airways IFIs and no patient died due to IFIs. In this cohort of patients, prolonged aero-d-AmB seems to have a role in preventing respiratory tract IFIs, but a randomized controlled trial is recommended to verify the impact of this prophylaxis in the setting of allogeneic HSCT.