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No beneficial effect from addition of etoposide to daunorubicin, cytarabine, and 6-mercaptopurine in individualized induction therapy of adult acute myeloid leukemia: the JALSG-AML92 study. Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

Author(s): Miyawaki S, Tanimoto M, Kobayashi T, Minami S, Tamura J, Omoto E, Kuriyama K, Hatake K, Saito K, Kanamaru A, Oh H, Ohtake S, Asou N, Sakamaki H, Yamada O, Jinnai I, Tsubaki K, Takeyama K, Hiraoka A, Matsuda S, Takahashi M, Shimazaki C, Adachi K, Kageyama S, Ohno R

Affiliation(s): Saiseikai Maebashi Hospital, Maebashi, Japan.

Publication date & source: 1999-08, Int J Hematol., 70(2):97-104.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

To assess the efficacy of etoposide added to the standard remission induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), newly diagnosed adult AML patients were randomized to receive either daunorubicin (40 mg/m2/day x 4 or more), behenoyl cytarabine (200 mg/m2/day x 10 or more), and 6-mercaptopurine (70 mg/m2/day x 10 or more) (BHAC-DM), or the same three drugs plus etoposide (100 mg/m2/day x 5) (BHAC-EDM) for response-oriented individualized induction therapy. The patients achieving complete remission (CR) received the same 3 courses of consolidation therapy followed by 6 courses of maintenance/intensification therapy. M3 patients were excluded because all-trans retinoic acid was used. Of 667 patients registered, 655 were evaluable. The median age was 49 (range 15 to 85). CR rates were 77% in the BHAC-DM group and 75% in the BHAC-EDM group. In 173 M4 patients, CR rates were 86% and 69% (P = 0.009), and in 32 M5 patients, 80% and 77% (P = 0.810) in the BHAC-DM and the BHAC-EDM groups, respectively. The predicted 6-year overall survival rates were 30% and 38% (P = 0.925) for the BHAC-DM and BHAC-EDM groups, and the disease-free survival rates of CR patients were 25% and 35% (P = 0.352), respectively. Nonhematological toxicities after the first course of induction therapy were almost equal among the two groups, with the exception of a greater loss of hair (P = 0.024) and more frequent diarrhea (P = 0.013) in the BHAC-EDM group. We concluded that in the present study, the addition of etoposide to the standard individualized induction therapy showed no advantage in adult AML, even among M4 and M5 patients.

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