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Quinine 3-hydroxylation as a biomarker reaction for the activity of CYP3A4 in man.

Author(s): Mirghani RA, Ericsson O, Tybring G, Gustafsson LL, Bertilsson L

Affiliation(s): Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Karolinska Institutet and Hospital Pharmacy, C1-68 Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. rajaa.a.mirghani@labtek.ki.se

Publication date & source: 2003-05, Eur J Clin Pharmacol., 59(1):23-8. Epub 2003 Mar 11.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of the 3-hydroxylation of quinine as a biomarker reaction for the activity of CYP3A4 in man and to study the interindividual variation in the metabolic ratio (MR), i.e. quinine/3-hydroxyquinine. METHODS: Data from a previous study (A) was used for determination of the MR of quinine in plasma and urine at different time points. In study B, 24 healthy Swedish subjects received 250 mg quinine hydrochloride first alone and later together with four other CYP probe drugs [losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), debrisoquine (CYP2D6) and caffeine (CYP1A2)] administered on the same day. Plasma and urine samples were collected before quinine intake and 16 h thereafter and analysed for quinine and 3-hydroxyquinine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma and/or urine were collected for the other probes at different time points. MRs of all the probes were determined and correlations to quinine MR were studied. RESULTS: In study A, the MR in plasma was stable over 96 h. The ratio increased from 5.8 to 12.2 (P=0.006) during co-administration with ketoconazole, whereas no significant difference (P=0.76) was observed during co-administration with fluvoxamine (from 5.8 to 6.0). In study B, there was no significant difference (P=0.36) between the mean MRs when quinine was given alone (4.7) or together with the four other drugs (4.5). There was a significant correlation between the MR of quinine and omeprazole sulphone formation (r=0.52, P<0.01), but not to the MRs of the other probes. There was a fivefold interindividual variability in the MR. CONCLUSIONS: The MR of quinine in plasma or urine may serve as a stable measure of the activity of CYP3A4 in man. These results together with in vitro data show that quinine is also a specific CYP3A4 probe.

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