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Mitomycin C with continuous fluorouracil or with cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II study 22011-40014).

Author(s): Matzinger O, Roelofsen F, Mineur L, Koswig S, Van Der Steen-Banasik EM, Van Houtte P, Haustermans K, Radosevic-Jelic L, Mueller RP, Maingon P, Collette L, Bosset JF, EORTC Radiation Oncology and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Groups

Affiliation(s): EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

Publication date & source: 2009-11, Eur J Cancer., 45(16):2782-91. Epub 2009 Jul 28.

Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase II; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and activity of radio-chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin (CDDP) in locally advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma with reference to radiotherapy (RT) combined with MMC and fluorouracil (5-FU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with measurable disease >4 cmN0 or N+ received RT (36Gy+2 week gap+23.4Gy) with either MMC/CDDP or MMC/5-FU (MMC 10mg/m(2) d1 of each sequence; 5-FU 200mg/m(2)/day c.i.v. daily; CDDP 25mg/m(2) weekly). Forty patients/arm were needed to exclude a RECIST objective response rate (ORR), 8 weeks after treatment, of <75% (Fleming 1, alpha=10%, beta=10%). RESULTS: The ORR was 79.5% (31/39) (lower bound confidence interval [CI]: 68.8%) with MMC/5-FU versus 91.9% (34/ 37) (lower bound CI: 82.8%) with MMC/CDDP. In the MMC/5-FU group, two patients (5.1%) discontinued treatment due to toxicity versus 11 (29.7%) in the MMC/CDDP group. Nine grade 3 haematological events occurred with MMC/CDDP versus none with 5-FU/MMC. The rate of other toxicities did not differ. There was no toxic death. Thirty-one patients in the MMC/5-FU arm (79.5%) and 18 in the MMC/CDDP arm (48.6%) were fully compliant with the protocol treatment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Radio-chemotherapy with MMC/CDDP seems promising as only MMC/CDDP demonstrated enough activity (RECIST ORR >75%) to be tested further in phase III trials; MMC/5-FU did not. MMC/CDDP also had an overall acceptable toxicity profile.

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