Biliary excretion of ximelagatran and its metabolites and the influence of erythromycin following intraintestinal administration to healthy volunteers.
Author(s): Matsson EM, Eriksson UG, Knutson L, Hoffmann KJ, Logren U, Fridblom P, Petri N, Lennernas H
Affiliation(s): Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Publication date & source: 2011-05, J Clin Pharmacol., 51(5):770-83. Epub 2010 Jul 27.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
The biliary excretion of the oral thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated by using duodenal aspiration in healthy volunteers following intraintestinal dosing. In the first investigation, radiolabeled [(14)C]ximelagatran was administered, enabling quantification of the biliary excretion and identification of metabolites in the bile. In the second study, the effect of erythromycin on the biliary clearance of ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated to clarify the reported ximelagatran-erythromycin interaction. Approximately 4% of the intraintestinal dose was excreted into bile with ximelagatran and its active form, melagatran, being the most abundant compounds. Four novel ximelagatran metabolites were identified in bile (<0.1% of dose). Erythromycin changed the pharmacokinetics of ximelagatran and its metabolites, with an elevated ximelagatran (78% increase), OH-melagatran (89% increase), and melagatran (86% increase) plasma exposure and higher peak plasma concentrations of the compounds being measured. In parallel, the biliary clearance was moderately reduced. The results suggest that inhibition of hepatobiliary transport is a likely mechanism for the interaction between erythromycin and ximelagatran. Furthermore, the study demonstrated the value of direct bile sampling in humans for the identification of primary biliary metabolites.