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Analysis of age, estimated creatinine clearance and pretreatment hematologic parameters as predictors of fludarabine toxicity in patients treated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a CALGB (9011) coordinated intergroup study.

Author(s): Martell RE, Peterson BL, Cohen HJ, Petros WP, Rai KR, Morrison VA, Elias L, Shepherd L, Hines J, Larson RA, Schiffer CA, Hurwitz HI

Affiliation(s): Geriatrics Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Hematology/Oncology Division, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Publication date & source: 2002-07, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol., 50(1):37-45. Epub 2002 Apr 27.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Randomized Controlled Trial

PURPOSE: Fludarabine is a renally excreted agent that is an effective treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease predominantly of the elderly. We sought to determine whether age, renal function or pretreatment hematologic status predicted toxicity of fludarabine treatment for CLL. METHODS: We evaluated 192 patients with previously untreated B-cell CLL who were entered onto the fludarabine treatment arm (25 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every 28 days) of CALGB study 9011, an intergroup study with participation from SWOG, CTG/NCI-C and ECOG. Patients were required to have serum creatinine within 1.5 times normal. Hematologic indices and infections were recorded during the first 28-day cycle of treatment. A time-to-toxicity endpoint was evaluated over the entire course of fludarabine treatment. Creatinine clearance (CrCl(est)) was estimated using serum creatinine, age and body mass index. RESULTS: The median age was 64 years (range 37-87 years) and median CrCl(est) was 62 ml/min (range 27-162 ml/min, interquartile range 52-79 ml/min). We found no association between age and incidence of hematologic toxicity or infection during the first cycle of treatment. There was a strong association between CrCl(est) and the time-to-toxicity endpoint. Patients with CrCl(est) below 80 ml/min had increased incidence of toxicity during their treatment course ( P<0.0001). Pretreatment anemia, thrombocytopenia and Rai stage were highly associated with the incidence of neutrophil toxicity and grade III/IV hematologic toxicities during the first cycle of treatment ( P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patient age was not an independent risk factor for fludarabine-related toxicity, but CrCl(est) was associated with time to toxicity.

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