Daunorubicin versus mitoxantrone versus idarubicin as induction and consolidation chemotherapy for adults with acute myeloid leukemia: the EORTC and GIMEMA Groups Study AML-10.
Author(s): Mandelli F, Vignetti M, Suciu S, Stasi R, Petti MC, Meloni G, Muus P, Marmont F, Marie JP, Labar B, Thomas X, Di Raimondo F, Willemze R, Liso V, Ferrara F, Baila L, Fazi P, Zittoun R, Amadori S, de Witte T
Affiliation(s): Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, SapienzaUniversity, Rome, Italy.
Publication date & source: 2009-11-10, J Clin Oncol., 27(32):5397-403. Epub 2009 Oct 13.
Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase III; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PURPOSE: To compare the antitumor efficacy of three different anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine and etoposide in adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned 2,157 patients (age range, 15 to 60 years) to receive intensive induction-consolidation chemotherapy containing either daunorubicin, idarubicin, or mitoxantrone. After achieving complete remission (CR), patients were assigned to undergo either allogeneic or autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT), depending on the availability of a sibling donor. RESULTS: The overall CR rate (69%) was similar in the three groups. Autologous SCT was performed in 37% of cases in the daunorubicin arm versus only 29% and 31% in mitoxantrone and idarubicin, respectively (P < .001). However, the disease-free survival (DFS) and survival from CR were significantly shorter in the daunorubicin arm: the 5-year DFS was 29% versus 37% and 37% in mitoxantrone and idarubicin, respectively. The proportion of patients who underwent allogeneic SCT (22%) was equivalent in the three treatment groups, and the outcome was similar as well. The [corrected] 5-year overall survival rates were 31%, 34%, and 34%, [corrected] respectively. CONCLUSION: In adult patients with AML who do not receive an allogeneic SCT, the use of mitoxantrone or idarubicin instead of daunorubicin enhances the long-term efficacy of chemotherapy.