Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: where are we at with sipuleucel-T?
Author(s): Lu C, Williams AK, Chalasani V, Martinez CH, Chin J
Affiliation(s): Divisions of Urology and Surgical Oncology, Departments of Surgery and Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Publication date & source: 2011-01, Expert Opin Biol Ther., 11(1):99-108. Epub 2010 Nov 17.
Publication type: Review
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Prostate cancer is the leading malignancy in North American men and despite improvements in treatments 20 - 30% of patients will relapse. Immunotherapy using activated mononuclear cells is a way to harness the body's adaptive immune response to fight metastatic prostate cancer. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: In 2005, at least 10 therapeutic cancer vaccines, designed to confer active, specific immunotherapy against tumor-associated antigens, were in clinical trials. These covered potential fields of immunological strategy to overcome castration-resistant prostate cancer. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: A literature review was performed using the search terms sipuleucel-T, Provenge and APC8015 or APC-8015, and restricted to English language articles from 2000 to 2010. The immunological design and development of sipuleucel-T are summarized. The efficacy and safety of sipuleucel-T are discussed based on current data from clinical trials. Ongoing clinical trials involving sipuleucel-T are summarized. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Efficacy and safety with sipuleucel-T has been demonstrated in Phase I/II trials. The latest data from a Phase III trial shows that sipuleucel-T has met the primary endpoint of survival benefit. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms behind cancer vaccine failure and elucidate the population for whom this vaccine will be suitable.