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Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 2 in hamster and human oral cancer and chemopreventive effects of zileuton and celecoxib.

Author(s): Li N, Sood S, Wang S, Fang M, Wang P, Sun Z, Yang CS, Chen X

Affiliation(s): Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers-State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Publication date & source: 2005-03-01, Clin Cancer Res., 11(5):2089-96.

Publication type: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested an important role of aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially the cyclooxygenase (Cox) pathway, in oral carcinogenesis. However, it is unknown whether the 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) pathway contributes to oral carcinogenesis, and whether combination of inhibitors of both pathways may have synergistic or additive effects of chemoprevention. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 5-Lox expression was examined in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster and human oral cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry, and Cox2 expression was investigated in hamster oral tissues using in situ hybridization. Zileuton (a specific 5-Lox inhibitor) and celecoxib (a specific Cox2 inhibitor), either alone or in combination, were investigated for their chemopreventive effects on the DMBA-induced hamster model at the post-initiation stage through topical application. RESULTS: 5-Lox was overexpressed during oral carcinogenesis in hamsters and humans, as well as Cox2 in the hamster tissues. In a chemoprevention study using the post-initiation DMBA model, incidence of hamster oral squamous cell carcinoma was reduced from 76.9% (20 of 26) to 45.8% (11 of 24, P < 0.05) and 32.1% (9 of 28, P < 0.01) by 3% and 6% topical zileuton, respectively; and to 57.6% (15 of 26, P > 0.05) and 50% (12 of 24, P < 0.05) by 3% and 6% topical celecoxib, respectively. When used in combination, celecoxib and zileuton (3% of each) had an additive inhibitory effect on the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (36%, 9 of 25, P < 0.01). Other pathologic variables and the levels of leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 of the hamster tissues were reduced as well. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly showed that both 5-Lox and Cox2 played important roles in oral carcinogenesis. Zileuton and celecoxib prevented oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage through their inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid metabolism.

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