Effects of topical anti-inflammatory agents in a botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Author(s): Lekhanont K, Park CY, Smith JA, Combs JC, Preechawat P, Suwan-Apichon O, Rangsin R, Chuck RS
Affiliation(s): Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21286-9278, USA.
Publication date & source: 2007-02, J Ocul Pharmacol Ther., 23(1):27-34.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid, doxycycline, and artificial tears for the treatment of ocular surface damage in the Botulinum toxin B (BTX-B)-induced mouse model of dry eye. METHODS: CBA/J mice were randomized into 2 experimental groups of 35 animals each. The control group received a transconjunctival injection of 0.05 mL of saline into the left lacrimal gland, and another group was injected with 0.05 mL of 20 milliunits BTX-B solution (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Three (3) days after intralacrimal gland injections, each group was equally randomized into 7 subgroups (n=5 each) to receive treatment unilaterally into their left eyes with topical artificial tears (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium), 0.1% fluorometholone, 0.1% nepafenac, 0.4% ketorolac, 0.09% bromfenac, 0.1% diclofenac, or 0.025% doxycycline. Tear volume, ocular surface changes, and spontaneous blink rate were evaluated in each of the 14 experimental subgroups. RESULTS: Topical fluorometholone, nepafenac, and doxycycline significantly improved corneal surface staining in the BTX-B-injected mice within 2 weeks of treatment. Topical ketorolac, diclofenac, and bromfenac, applied twice-daily, partially reduce corneal staining, and did so more slowly by the 4-week time point. In comparison, topical artificial tear-treated mice did not demonstrate significant improvement of the corneal surface at any time point. Aqueous tear production in the BTX-B-injected fluorometholone-treated group started to return to baseline level within 2 weeks, although not significantly. Meanwhile, BTX-B-injected mice treated with artificial tears, topical NSAIDs, and doxycycline still exhibited a reduction in tear production up to 4 weeks. No significant differences in blink rate between the control and study groups undergoing the various treatments were noted at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the potential usefulness of topical NSAIDs, corticosteroid, and doxycycline for the clinical treatment of ocular surface epithelial disorders associated with dry eye.