Quantification of IgG anti-D bound to D-positive red cells infused into D-negative subjects after intramuscular injection of monoclonal anti-D.
Author(s): Kumpel BM, Judson PA
Affiliation(s): International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK.
Publication date & source: 1995-06, Transfus Med., 5(2):105-12.
A flow-cytometric method was developed to determine the number of molecules of IgG bound to D-positive red blood cells (RBC) when sensitized with low plasma concentrations of IgG anti-D in the presence of an excess of D-negative RBC. D-positive RBC were infused into 12 D-negative male volunteers 2 days after intramuscular injection of monoclonal anti-D (BRAD-3, IgG3 or BRAD-5, IgG1). Blood samples were taken immediately before, 3 min and 3 h after injection of the RBC, incubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C, washed, then incubated sequentially with FITC-conjugated anti-IgG, IgM monoclonal anti-D, biotin-conjugated anti-IgM, and R-phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin. To prepare a standard curve, O R1R2 RBC were incubated in duplicate with varying dilutions of BRAD-3 or BRAD-5, and RBC from one set were mixed with an excess of D-negative RBC (1:100) and labelled as above, while cell-bound IgG on the other set was quantified by ELISA. The test samples and standards were analyzed by flow cytometry and the mean channel (FITC) fluorescence was plotted against molecules IgG/cell, from which the sensitization level of D-positive RBC in the test samples was determined. The use of IgM anti-D enhanced the discrimination between D-positive and D-negative RBC, especially when fewer than about 3000 molecules IgG/cell were bound. The assay was sensitive to about 1000 molecules IgG/cell. The sensitization levels of the D-positive RBC in samples taken 3 h after injection were found to be in the range 1500-10,000 molecules IgG anti-D per cell.