Efficacy of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Author(s): Kudo N, Kubota H, Gotoh H, Ishida H, Ikadai H, Oyamada T
Affiliation(s): Department of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2008-01-25, Vet Parasitol., 151(1):46-52. Epub 2007 Oct 16.
In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against Gongylonema pulchrum. For in vitro assays, third-stage larvae (L3) incubated with the drugs were administered orally to mice and the ability of larvae to invade the gastric mucosa of the animals was examined. After incubation, only those larvae treated with high concentrations of levamisole (1 and 10 microg/ml) were tightly coiled with intestines exhibiting morphological abnormalities. Good dose-response data for the drugs tested was observed at the time of worm recovery from mice, with no worms recovered at the two highest concentrations of levamisole. In vivo efficacy of the drugs against adult worms was evaluated in six groups of three rabbits, each of which was infected with 30 L3 of G. pulchrum and treated with thiabendazole at 100 mg/kg for 3 days, mebendazole at 70 mg/kg for 3 days, levamisole as a single dose of 8 mg/kg, and subcutaneously injected ivermectin as a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg or vehicles of the drugs (control) at 4 months post-infection. Necropsy 14 days after treatment revealed that levamisole, mebendazole and ivermectin reduced worm burdens by 63.2%, 22.8% and 25.8%, respectively, with no reductions in worms observed with thiabendazole. The surviving worms were principally found in the esophagus with the remainder distributed among the buccal mucosa, the tongue, and/or pharyngeal mucosa in all groups. A number of morphologically abnormal eggs were observed within the uterus and ovijector in female worms recovered from the thiabendazole-treated group. These findings suggest that levamisole exhibits in vivo efficacy against G. pulchrum infection and that the larval invasion tests using mice could be used to screen for anthelmintic susceptibility of nematodes.