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A study of rasburicase for the management of hyperuricemia in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed hematologic malignancies at high risk for tumor lysis syndrome.

Author(s): Kikuchi A, Kigasawa H, Tsurusawa M, Kawa K, Kikuta A, Tsuchida M, Nagatoshi Y, Asami K, Horibe K, Makimoto A, Tsukimoto I

Affiliation(s): Division of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan. akikuchi-tky@umin.ac.jp

Publication date & source: 2009-11, Int J Hematol., 90(4):492-500. Epub 2009 Aug 22.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), including hyperuricemia, is a frequent serious complication in patients with hematologic malignancies. This study in Japanese patients evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of rasburicase in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients aged <18 years at high risk for TLS, with newly diagnosed hematologic malignancies, were randomized to intravenous rasburicase 0.15 mg/kg/day (n = 15) or 0.20 mg/kg/day (n = 15) for 5 days. Chemotherapy was started 4-24 h after the first rasburicase dose. Response was defined as a reduction in plasma uric acid to < or = 6.5 mg/dL (patients <13 years) or < or = 7.5 mg/dL (patients > or = 13 years) by 48 h after the first administration, lasting until 24 h after the final administration. Response rates were 93.3 and 100% with rasburicase 0.15 and 0.20 mg/kg/day, respectively. Uric acid levels declined rapidly within 4 h of starting rasburicase administration in both groups. Most adverse events were related to the underlying chemotherapy regimens. Two hypersensitivity reactions, including grade 1/2 pruritus, were considered to be related to rasburicase. Rasburicase is effective and well tolerated for the management of hyperuricemia in Japanese pediatric patients at high risk of developing TLS.

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