Randomized multicenter phase II trial of bolus plus infusional fluorouracil/leucovorin compared with fluorouracil/leucovorin plus oxaliplatin as third-line treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
Author(s): Kemeny N, Garay CA, Gurtler J, Hochster H, Kennedy P, Benson A, Brandt DS, Polikoff J, Wertheim M, Shumaker G, Hallman D, Burger B, Gupta S
Affiliation(s): Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 2004-12-01, J Clin Oncol., 22(23):4753-61.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Randomized Controlled Trial
PURPOSE: The addition of oxaliplatin to fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin (LV) improves the outcome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This multicenter study evaluated FU/LV with or without oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic CRC after disease progression on sequential fluoropyrimidine and irinotecan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred fourteen patients were randomly assigned to receive LV 200 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) and FU 400 mg/m2 IV bolus, followed by FU 600 mg/m2 IV over 22 hours on days 1 and 2, every 2 weeks (LV5FU2); or LV and FU as described, plus oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 IV over 2 hours on day 1 of the schedule (FOLFOX4). The primary end point was overall response. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two treatment arms. Objective response (complete + partial) rates for LV5FU2 versus FOLFOX4 were 2% v 13% (P = .0027), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 2.4 v 4.8 months (P < .0001), and median survival was 11.4 v 9.9 months (P = .20) for LV5FU2 and FOLFOX4, respectively. Among the 72 patients who crossed over from LV5FU2 to FOLFOX4, 6% responded. Symptomatic improvement was significantly better for patients in the FOLFOX4 arm (32% v 18% for LV5FU2, P = .05). Grade 3/4 toxicities for LV5FU2 and FOLFOX4 were neutropenia (13% and 42%, respectively), diarrhea (6% and 16%, respectively), and overall neuropathy (0% and 6%, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic CRC, the FOLFOX4 regimen was superior to LV5FU2 with a higher response rate and time to disease progression. FOLFOX4 is an effective regimen even after disease progression on two previous chemotherapy regimens with fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan.