Artemisinin-based combinations versus amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Faladje, Mali.
Author(s): Kayentao K, Maiga H, Newman RD, McMorrow ML, Hoppe A, Yattara O, Traore H, Kone Y, Guirou EA, Saye R, Traore B, Djimde A, Doumbo OK
Affiliation(s): Malaria Research and Training Centre, Department of Epidemiology of Parasitologic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry, University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2009-01-07, Malar J., 8:5.
Publication type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
BACKGROUND: Because of the emergence of chloroquine resistance in Mali, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) are recommended as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria, but have not been available in Mali until recently because of high costs. METHODS: From July 2005 to January 2006, a randomized open-label trial of three oral antimalarial combinations, namely AS+AQ, artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP), and amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP), was conducted in Faladje, Mali. Parasite genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to distinguish new from recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections. RESULTS: 397 children 6 to 59 months of age with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled, and followed for 28 days to assess treatment efficacy. Baseline characteristics were similar in all three treatment groups. The uncorrected rates of adequate clinical and parasitologic response (ACPR) were 55.7%, 90.8%, and 97.7% in AS+AQ, AS+SP, and AQ+SP respectively (p < 0.001); after PCR correction ACPR rates were similar among treatment groups: 95.4%, 96.9%, and 99.2% respectively (p = 0.17). Mean haemoglobin concentration increased across all treatment groups from Day 0 (9.82 +/- 1.68 g/dL) to Day 28 (10.78 +/- 1.49 g/dL) (p < 0.001), with the greatest improvement occurring in children treated with AQ+SP. On Day 2, the prevalence of parasitaemia was significantly greater among children treated with AQ+SP (50.8%) than in children treated with AS+AQ (10.5%) or AS+SP (10.8%) (p < 0.001). No significant difference in gametocyte carriage was found between groups during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The combination of AQ+SP provides a potentially low cost alternative for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in Mali and appears to have the added value of longer protective effect against new infection.