Safety and Effectiveness of two treatment regimes with tranexamic acid to minimize inflammatory response in elective cardiopulmonary bypass patients: a randomized double-blind, dose-dependent, phase IV clinical trial.
Author(s): Jimenez JJ, Iribarren JL, Brouard M, Hernandez D, Palmero S, Jimenez A, Lorente L, Machado P, Borreguero JM, Raya JM, Martin B, Perez R, Martinez R, Mora ML
Affiliation(s): Critical Care Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Ofra s/n, La Cuesta, 38320-La Laguna, Espana. email@example.com.
Publication date & source: 2011-10-14, J Cardiothorac Surg., 6:138.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients, fibrinolysis may enhance postoperative inflammatory response. We aimed to determine whether an additional postoperative dose of antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TA) reduced CPB-mediated inflammatory response (IR). METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, dose-dependent, parallel-groups study of elective CPB patients receiving TA. Patients were randomly assigned to either the single-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before CPB and placebo after CPB) or the double-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before and after CPB). RESULTS: 160 patients were included, 80 in each group. The incident rate of IR was significantly lower in the double-dose-group TA2 (7.5% vs. 18.8% in the single-dose group TA1; P = 0.030). After adjusting for hypertension, total protamine dose and temperature after CPB, TA2 showed a lower risk of IR compared with TA1 [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10-0.83), (P = 0.013)]. Relative risk for IR was 2.5 for TA1 (95% CI: 1.02 to 6.12). The double-dose group had significantly lower chest tube bleeding at 24 hours [671 (95% CI 549-793 vs. 826 (95% CI 704-949) mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant] and lower D-dimer levels at 24 hours [489 (95% CI 437-540) vs. 621(95% CI: 563-679) ng/mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant]. TA2 required lower levels of norepinephrine at 24 h [0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.09) vs. 0.20(95 CI: 0.05-0.35) after adjusting for dobutamine [F = 6.6; P = 0.014 corrected-P significant].We found a significant direct relationship between IL-6 and temperature (rho = 0.26; P < 0.01), D-dimer (rho = 0.24; P < 0.01), norepinephrine (rho = 0.33; P < 0.01), troponin I (rho = 0.37; P < 0.01), Creatine-Kinase (rho = 0.37; P < 0.01), Creatine Kinase-MB (rho = 0.33; P < 0.01) and lactic acid (rho = 0.46; P < 0.01) at ICU arrival. Two patients (1.3%) had seizure, 3 patients (1.9%) had stroke, 14 (8.8%) had acute kidney failure, 7 (4.4%) needed dialysis, 3 (1.9%) suffered myocardial infarction and 9 (5.6%) patients died. We found no significant differences between groups regarding these events. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged inhibition of fibrinolysis, using an additional postoperative dose of tranexamic acid reduces inflammatory response and postoperative bleeding (but not transfusion requirements) in CPB patients. A question which remains unanswered is whether the dose used was ideal in terms of safety, but not in terms of effectiveness. CURRENT CONTROLLED TRIALS NUMBER: ISRCTN: ISRCTN84413719.