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Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of the novel antimigraine agent almotriptan in healthy male volunteers.

Author(s): Jansat JM, Costa J, Salva P, Fernandez FJ, Martinez-Tobed A

Affiliation(s): Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Almirall Prodesfarma S.A., Research Centre, Barcelona, Spain.

Publication date & source: 2002-12, J Clin Pharmacol., 42(12):1303-10.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of almotriptan, a novel 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist, were studied in 18 healthy males following single intravenous (i.v.) (3 mg), subcutaneous (s.c.) (6 mg), and oral (25 mg) doses. Volunteers received each dose in a randomized sequence separated by a 7-day washout. Blood and urine samples for pharmacokinetic evaluations were taken for up to 24 hours after dosing. The disposition kinetics of almotriptan after i.v. and s.c. administration showed biphasic decline described by a two-compartment model. The fastest disposition phase was well observed, although estimates of the rate constant showed high variability. After s.c. administration of almotriptan, the bioavailability was 100% with a time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax) of 5 to 15 minutes, whereas after oral administration, the bioavailability was about 70% with a tmax of 1.5 to 3.0 hours. No significant differences were observed between administration routes in the elimination half-life (t(1/2), obtaining mean values ranging from 3.4 to 3.6 hours. The volume of distribution, total clearance, and t(1/2) indicated that almotriptan was extensively distributed and rapidly cleared from the body irrespective of dose or route of administration. The primary route of elimination was renal clearance (approximately 50%-60% of total body clearance). About 65% of the i.v. and s.c. dose and 45% of the oral dose were excreted unchanged in urine in 24 hours, with nearly 90% of this in the first 12 hours. Renal clearance was approximately 2- to 3-fold that of the glomerular filtration rate in man, suggesting that almotriptan is eliminated in part by renal tubular secretion.

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