Fentanyl sparing effects of combined ketorolac and acetaminophen for outpatient inguinal hernia repair in children.
Author(s): Hong JY, Won Han S, Kim WO, Kil HK
Affiliation(s): Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2010-04, J Urol., 183(4):1551-5. Epub 2010 Feb 21.
Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
PURPOSE: In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined use of intravenous ketorolac and acetaminophen in small children undergoing outpatient inguinal hernia repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 55 children 1 to 5 years old who were undergoing elective repair of unilateral inguinal hernia. After induction of general anesthesia children in the experimental group (28 patients) received 1 mg/kg ketorolac and 20 mg/kg acetaminophen intravenously. In the control group (27 patients) the same volume of saline was administered. All patients received 1 microg/kg fentanyl intravenously before incision. We also evaluated the number of patients requiring postoperative rescue fentanyl, total fentanyl consumption, pain scores and side effects. RESULTS: Significantly fewer patients receiving ketorolac-acetaminophen received postoperative rescue fentanyl compared to controls (28.6% vs 81.5%). A significantly lower total dose of fentanyl was administered to patients receiving ketorolac-acetaminophen compared to controls (0.54 vs 1.37 microg/kg). Pain scores were significantly higher in the control group immediately postoperatively but eventually decreased. The incidences of sedation use (55.6% vs 25.0%) and vomiting (33.3% vs 10.7%) were significantly higher in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative intravenous coadministration of ketorolac and acetaminophen is a simple, safe and effective method for relieving postoperative pain, and demonstrates highly significant fentanyl sparing effects in small children after outpatient inguinal hernia repair. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.