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Addition of cladribine to daunorubicin and cytarabine increases complete remission rate after a single course of induction treatment in acute myeloid leukemia. Multicenter, phase III study.

Author(s): Holowiecki J, Grosicki S, Robak T, Kyrcz-Krzemien S, Giebel S, Hellmann A, Skotnicki A, Jedrzejczak WW, Konopka L, Kuliczkowski K, Zdziarska B, Dmoszynska A, Marianska B, Pluta A, Zawilska K, Komarnicki M, Kloczko J, Sulek K, Haus O, Stella-Holowiecka B, Baran W, Jakubas B, Paluszewska M, Wierzbowska A, Kielbinski M, Jagoda K, Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG)

Affiliation(s): University Department of Haematology and BMT, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland. holow@infomed.slam.katowice.pl

Publication date & source: 2004-05, Leukemia., 18(5):989-97.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

To assess the efficacy of an original DAC-7 regimen: daunorubicine (DNR) 60 mg/m2/day, days 1-3; cytarabine (AraC) 200 mg/m2/day, days 1-7; cladribine (2-CdA) 5 mg/m2/day, days 1-5, 400 untreated adult acute myeloid leukemia patients (including 63 with preceding myelodysplastic syndrome), aged 45 (16-60) years were randomized to either DAC-7 (n=200) or DA-7 (without 2-CdA, n=200). The overall CR rate equaled 72% for DAC-7 and 69% for DA-7 arm (P=NS). After a single course of DAC-7 induction, the CR rate equaled 64% and was significantly higher compared to 47% in the DA-7 arm (P=0.0009). Median hospitalization time during the induction was 7 days shorter for DAC-7 compared to the DA-7 group (33 vs 40 days, P=0.002). Toxicity was comparable in both groups. The probability of 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) for DAC-7 and DA-7 group equaled 43 and 34%, respectively (P=NS). There was a trend toward higher LFS rate for patients aged >40 years receiving DAC-7 compared with DA-7 regimen (44 vs 28%, P=0.05). This study proves that addition of 2-CdA increases antileukemic potency of DNR+AraC regimen, thus resulting in a higher CR rate after one induction cycle when compared to DA-7, without additional toxicity. It shortens hospitalization time and may improve long-term survival in patients aged >40 years.

Page last updated: 2006-01-31

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