Immediate versus delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device following dilation and evacuation: a randomized controlled trial.
Author(s): Hohmann HL, Reeves MF, Chen BA, Perriera LK, Hayes JL, Creinin MD
Affiliation(s): Center for Family Planning Research and the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Publication date & source: 2011-09-13, Contraception., [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to compare 6-month usage of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) when placed immediately or 3 to 6 weeks after dilation and evacuation (D&E) procedure. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled women undergoing D&E at 15 to 23 weeks of gestation. After completion of the D&E, subjects without contraindications to immediate IUD insertion were randomized to immediate or delayed (3 to 6 weeks later) LNG-IUD insertion. Subjects in the immediate group had the LNG-IUD placed using ultrasound guidance. All subjects returned at 3 to 6 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks after D&E and were contacted by phone at 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 93 subjects enrolled, 88 were randomized. All 44 subjects (100%) randomized to immediate insertion had successful IUD placement, while only 20 (45.5%) of the 44 subjects randomized to delayed insertion returned for IUD placement, all of which were successful [difference 54.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8%-69.3%]. Seventeen (38.6%) participants in each group were lost to follow-up. Of subjects contacted at the 6-month follow-up phone call, 23 of 27 women (85.2%) and 17 of 27 women (62.9%) were utilizing the LNG-IUD in the immediate and delayed groups, respectively (difference 22.2%, 95% CI -0.4% to 44.8%). Intrauterine device expulsion occurred in three subjects (6.8%) and one subject (5.0%) in whom the IUD was placed in the immediate and delayed groups, respectively (p=1.0). No significant adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: Significantly more participants had the LNG-IUD placed in the immediate insertion group compared with the delayed insertion group. Given the low risk of complications, immediate post-D&E insertion of the LNG-IUD should be offered, especially for populations that may have difficulty returning for follow-up. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.