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Vitreous nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug concentrations and prostaglandin E2 levels in vitrectomy patients treated with ketorolac 0.4%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%.

Author(s): Heier JS, Awh CC, Busbee BG, Waterbury LD, Daniel P, Stoller GL, Cleary TS

Affiliation(s): Ophthalmic Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. jsheier@eyeboston.com

Publication date & source: 2009-10, Retina., 29(9):1310-3.

Publication type: Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PURPOSE: To assess vitreous concentrations of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prostaglandin E(2) in patients treated with NSAIDs before vitrectomy. METHODS: This was an investigator-masked, randomized, multicenter study. Patients received ketorolac 0.4% 4 times a day, bromfenac 0.09% 2 times a day, nepafenac 0.1% 3 times a day, or no NSAID for 3 days before surgery. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and prostaglandin E(2) levels were determined in vitreous samples collected at the beginning of surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in the analyses. The mean (SD) vitreous concentrations were as follows: ketorolac 2.8 (3.2) ng/mL, bromfenac 0.96 (0.31) ng/mL, nepafenac 1.1 (0.6) ng/mL, and amfenac 2.0 (0.8) ng/mL aligned with the initial concentrations of the topical NSAIDs. Mean (SD) vitreous prostaglandin E(2) levels of the control patients and those treated with ketorolac 0.4%, bromfenac 0.09%, or nepafenac 0.1% were 270.6 (91.7) pg/mL, 189.6 (50.2) pg/mL, 247.2 (38.3) pg/mL, and 267.7 (99.7) pg/mL, respectively. Patients treated with ketorolac 0.4% had significantly lower prostaglandin E(2) levels than those treated with no NSAID (P = 0.047) or nepafenac 0.1% (P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: All three NSAIDs penetrated into the vitreous cavity. Topical therapy with ketorolac may lower preoperative vitreous prostaglandin E(2) levels, which may have a clinical impact on the management of prostaglandin-mediated diseases, including cystoid macular edema.

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