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Comparisons between novel oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists in patients with CKD.

Author(s): Harel Z(1), Sholzberg M, Shah PS, Pavenski K, Harel S, Wald R, Bell CM, Perl J.

Affiliation(s): Author information: (1)Division of Nephrology, and The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, and.

Publication date & source: 2014, J Am Soc Nephrol. , 25(3):431-42

Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) have been approved by international regulatory agencies to treat atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism in patients with kidney dysfunction. However, altered metabolism of these drugs in the setting of impaired kidney function may subject patients with CKD to alterations in their efficacy and a higher risk of bleeding. This article examined the efficacy and safety of the NOACs versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism in patients with CKD. A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were conducted to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) using a random-effects model. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles published up to March 2013. We selected published randomized controlled trials of NOACs compared with VKAs of at least 4 weeks' duration that enrolled patients with CKD (defined as creatinine clearance of 30-50 ml/min) and reported data on comparative efficacy and bleeding events. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible. There was no significant difference in the primary efficacy outcomes of stroke and systemic thromboembolism (four trials, 9693 participants; RR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.39 to 1.04]) and recurrent thromboembolism or thromboembolism-related death (four trials, 891 participants; RR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.43 to 2.15]) with NOACs versus VKAs. The risk of major bleeding or the combined endpoint of major bleeding or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (primary safety outcome) (eight trials, 10,616 participants; RR 0.89 [95% CI, 0.68 to 1.16]) was similar between the groups. The use of NOACs in select patients with CKD demonstrates efficacy and safety similar to those with VKAs. Proactive postmarketing surveillance and further studies are pivotal to further define the rational use of these agents.

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