Rasagiline (TVP-1012): a new selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease.
Author(s): Guay DR
Affiliation(s): Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2006-12, Am J Geriatr Pharmacother., 4(4):330-46.
Publication type: Review
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, drug-interaction potential, indications, dosing, and potential role of rasagiline mesylate, a new selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B (MAO-B) inhibitor, in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986 through September 2006) was conducted to identify studies involving rasagiline written in English. Additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of these studies. All studies evaluating any aspect of rasagiline, including in vitro, in vivo (animal), and human studies, were reviewed. RESULTS: Rasagiline mesylate was developed with the goal of producing a selective MAO-B inhibitor that is not metabolized to (presumed) toxic metabolites (eg, amphetamine and methamphetamine, which are byproducts of the metabolism of selegiline, another selective MAO-B inhibitor). In vitro and in vivo data have confirmed the drug's selectivity for MAO-B. Rasagiline is almost completely eliminated by oxidative metabolism (catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 [CYP] isozyme 1A2) followed by renal excretion of conjugated parent compound and metabolites. Drug clearance is sufficiently slow to allow once-daily dosing. Several studies have documented its efficacy as monotherapy for early-stage disease and as adjunctive therapy in L-dopa recipients with motor fluctuations. As monotherapy, rasagiline is well tolerated with an adverse-effect profile similar to that of placebo. As adjunctive therapy, it exhibits the expected adverse effects of dopamine excess, which can be ameliorated by reducing the L-dopa dosage. CYP1A2 inhibitors slow the elimination of rasagiline and mandate dosage reduction. Hepatic impairment has an analogous effect. The recommended dosage regimens for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy are 1 and 0.5 mg PO QD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the well-documented selectivity of rasagiline, the manufacturer recommends virtually all of the dietary (vis-a-vis tyramine) and drug restrictions of the nonselective MAO inhibitors. Although useful, selective MAO-B inhibitors have a limited role in Parkinson's disease. Of greater interest is the potential neuroprotective effect of rasagiline and its major metabolite, 1(R)-aminoindan, which may have great utility in a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders of aging. In addition, bifunctional molecules combining selective MAO-B inhibition (based on the active moiety of rasagiline) with acetylcholinesterase inhibition or iron chelation may eventually be useful in Alzheimer's disease.