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Comparison of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a two injection combined high-dose hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine to those of Twinrix.

Author(s): Greub G, Genton B, Safary A, Thoelen S, Frei PC

Affiliation(s): Division of Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, CH-1011, Lausanne, Switzerland. gilbert.greub@hospvd.ch

Publication date & source: 2000-12-08, Vaccine., 19(9-10):1113-7.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

Twinrix (SmithKline Beecham Biologicals) is a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine licensed with a three-dose schedule. A two-dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine would facilitate immunisation programs. In this prospective study, 100 healthy adults, aged between 18 and 40, were enrolled. A first group of 50 was given a high-dose vaccine at month 0 and 6. A second group of 50 received Twinrix at month 0, 1 and 6.The reactogenicity was assessed after each vaccine dose. There were no severe local adverse events. Seven severe systemic reactions occurred, of which five were fatigue, one was headache and one consist in gastrointestinal symptoms. They all resolved during the 4-day follow-up period. One serious general adverse event was reported, but was clearly unrelated to the vaccine. Thus, both vaccines were well tolerated.The immunogenicity was evaluated by testing for anti-HBs and anti-HAV antibodies. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titres (GMTs) were compared. At month 7, the anti-HAV GMTs were higher in the high-dose group than in the Twinrix group and, inversely, the anti-HBs GMTs were slightly higher in the Twinrix group than in the high-dose group. At month 7, all subjects in both groups were positive for anti-HAV. All subjects in the high-dose group and 97.6% subjects in the Twinrix group had seroconverted for anti-HBs. Therefore, it can be concluded that with two injections of the high-dose hepatitis A and B vaccine, 6 months apart, a similar immune response can be obtained as induced with three doses of Twinrix at months 0, 1 and 6.

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