Low-dose beta-lactam plus amikacin in febrile neutropenia: cefepime vs. piperacillin/tazobactam, a randomized trial.
Author(s): Gomez L, Estrada C, Gomez I, Marquez M, Estany C, Marti JM, Bastus R, Cirera L, Quintana S, Garau J
Affiliation(s): Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Universitari Mutua de Terrassa, University of Barcelona, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2010-04, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis., 29(4):417-27. Epub 2010 Feb 27.
Publication type: Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
Patients with fever and granulocytopenia are at risk of developing severe infection. We performed a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose cefepime plus amikacin (C-A) compared to low-dose piperacillin/tazobactam plus amikacin (PT-A). Patients received cefepime (2 g/12 h) plus amikacin (15 mg/kg/day) or piperacillin/tazobactam (4 g/500 mg/8 h) plus amikacin. A total of 317 episodes of febrile granulocytopenia in 190 patients were studied (152 in the C-A group, 165 in the PT-A group). A microbiologically documented infection was present in 53 (35%) episodes in the C-A group and 41 (25%) episodes in the PT-A group (p = ns); a clinically documented infection was observed in 39 (26%) and 47 (28%) episodes, respectively. Toxicity was observed in 6 (4%) episodes in the C-A group and in 5 (3%) episodes in the PT-A group. The antibiotic success rate (no change or addition of antibiotics) was recorded in 89 (59%) and 105 (64%) cases, respectively (p = ns). Mortality related to infection was similar in each arm (3.9% vs. 3.6%). Combination therapy of low-dose beta-lactam with an aminoglycoside achieves very good response rates and low rates of toxicity. It might be an attractive option in an environment of increasing resistance among gram-negative bacteria.