Three palonosetron regimens to prevent CINV in myeloma patients receiving multiple-day high-dose melphalan and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Author(s): Giralt SA, Mangan KF, Maziarz RT, Bubalo JS, Beveridge R, Hurd DD, Mendoza FL, Rubenstein EB, DeGroot TJ, Schuster MW
Affiliation(s): Adult BMT Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. GiraltS@mskcc.org
Publication date & source: 2011-04, Ann Oncol., 22(4):939-46. Epub 2010 Oct 8.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
BACKGROUND: Explore safety and efficacy of three palonosetron-containing regimens for emesis prevention over 7 days in multiple myeloma (MM) patients receiving melphalan (100 mg/m(2)) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Randomized, double-blind pilot study in MM patients (n=73) receiving 1, 2, or 3 days of 0.25 mg palonosetron (30-s i.v. bolus) 30 min before melphalan (days -2 and -1) and HSCT (day 0). Patients received dexamethasone (20 mg i.v., days -2 and -1) immediately before or after study drug/placebo. Daily diaries recorded emesis, rescue medication, nausea duration, and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Seven-day complete protection (no emesis) occurred in 41.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 22.1% to 63.4%], 41.7% (95% CI 22.1% to 63.4%), and 44.0% (95% CI 24.2% to 65.1%) of patients receiving 1, 2, or 3 days of palonosetron, respectively (P=0.43). Complete response (emesis free without rescue medication) occurred in 8.3%, 20.8%, and 20.0% (P=0.14). Common AEs (>/=10%) were mild-to-moderate diarrhea, constipation, headache, insomnia, and flatulence. No serious AEs occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Palonosetron with dexamethasone was safe and effective in preventing emesis in MM patients receiving melphalan and HSCT. This pilot study with a limited number of patients suggests that multiple doses of palonosetron could be more effective than a single dose in making patients emesis free without need for rescue medication. However, even multiple doses of palonosetron resulted in only 20% of patients being emesis free without rescue medication, suggesting that further improvement will require development of more effective combination antiemetic therapy. (c) The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.