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Phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of high-dose continuous infusion cytarabine alone or with laromustine (VNP40101M) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse.

Author(s): Giles F, Vey N, DeAngelo D, Seiter K, Stock W, Stuart R, Boskovic D, Pigneux A, Tallman M, Brandwein J, Kell J, Robak T, Staib P, Thomas X, Cahill A, Albitar M, O'Brien S

Affiliation(s): Cancer Therapy & Research Center (CTRC) at The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. frankgiles@aol.com

Publication date & source: 2009-11-05, Blood., 114(19):4027-33. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase III; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

Laromustine is a sulfonylhdrazine alkylator with significant antileukemia activity. An international, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to compare complete remission (CR) rates and overall survival (OS) in patients with first relapse acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with laromustine and high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) versus HDAC/placebo. Patients received 1.5 g/m(2) per day cytarabine continuous infusion for 3 days and laromustine 600 mg/m(2) (n = 177) or placebo (n = 86) on day 2. Patients in CR received consolidation with laromustine/HDAC or HDAC/placebo as per initial randomization. After interim analysis at 50% enrollment, the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) expressed concern that any advantage in CR would be compromised by the observed on-study mortality, and enrollment was held. The CR rate was significantly higher for the laromustine/HDAC group (35% vs 19%, P = .005). However, the 30-day mortality rate and median progression-free survival were significantly worse in this group compared with HDAC/placebo (11% vs 2%; P = .016; 54 days vs 34; P = .002). OS and median response durations were similar in both groups. Laromustine/HDAC induced significantly more CR than HDAC/placebo, but OS was not improved due to mortality associated with myelosuppression and its sequelae. The DSMB subsequently approved a revised protocol with laromustine dose reduction and recombinant growth factor support. The study was registered as NCT00112554 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Page last updated: 2010-10-05

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