A phase I factorial design study of dose-dense temozolomide alone and in combination with thalidomide, isotretinoin, and/or celecoxib as postchemoradiation adjuvant therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
Author(s): Gilbert MR, Gonzalez J, Hunter K, Hess K, Giglio P, Chang E, Puduvalli V, Groves MD, Colman H, Conrad C, Levin V, Woo S, Mahajan A, de Groot J, Yung WK
Affiliation(s): Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 431, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
Publication date & source: 2010-11, Neuro Oncol., 12(11):1167-72. Epub 2010 Aug 20.
Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
External beam radiation therapy (XRT) with concomitant temozolomide and 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (5/28-day schedule) improves survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma compared with XRT alone. Studies suggest that dose-dense temozolomide schedules and addition of cytostatic agents may further improve efficacy. This factorial design phase I/II protocol tested dose-dense temozolomide alone and combined with cytostatic agents. Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma received fractionated XRT to 60 Gy concomitant with temozolomide (75 mg/m(2))/day for 42 days). In the phase I portion, patients with stable disease or radiologic response 1 month after chemoradiation were randomized to adjuvant temozolomide alone (150 mg/m(2)/day, 7/14-day schedule) or with doublet combinations of thalidomide (400 mg/day), isotretinoin (100 mg/m(2)/day), and/or celecoxib (400 mg twice daily), or all 3 agents. Toxicity was assessed after 4 weeks. Among 54 patients enrolled (median age, 52 years; median Karnofsky performance status, 90), adjuvant treatment was not administered to 12 (22%), primarily because of disease progression (n = 10). All combinations were well tolerated. Grade 3/4 lymphopenia developed in 63% of patients, but no related infections occurred. One patient treated with temozolomide plus isotretinoin plus thalidomide had dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and rash, and 1 patient receiving all 4 agents had dose-limiting grade 4 neutropenia. Venous thrombosis occurred in 7 patients, 4 of whom received thalidomide. From study entry, median survival was 20 months and the 2-year survival rate was 40%. Multiple cytostatic agents can be safely combined with dose-dense temozolomide. The factorial-based phase II portion of this study is currently ongoing.