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Disposition of clorazepate in dogs after single- and multiple-dose oral administration.

Author(s): Forrester SD, Brown SA, Lees GE, Hartsfield SM

Affiliation(s): Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843.

Publication date & source: 1990-12, Am J Vet Res., 51(12):2001-5.

Clorazepate dipotassium was administered orally to 8 healthy dogs at a dosage of 2 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h, for 21 days. Serum disposition of nordiazepam, the principle metabolite of clorazepate, was determined after the first and last dose of clorazepate. Disposition variables were analyzed by use of model-independent pharmacokinetics by the predictive equations method and the trapezoidal rule method. Complete blood counts, serum chemical analyses, and urinalyses were performed before administration of clorazepate and at 10 and 21 days after administration of clorazepate. Maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 446 to 1,542 ng/ml (814 +/- 334 ng/ml), at 59 to 180 minutes (97.9 +/- 42.0 minutes) after a single oral dose of clorazepate. Maximal nordiazepam concentrations ranged from 927 to 1,460 ng/ml (1,308 +/- 187.6 ng/ml), at 120 to 239 minutes (153 +/- 57.9 minutes) after multiple oral doses of clorazepate. Serum disposition was significantly altered after multiple doses of clorazepate. Using data determined by the predictive equations method, the mean residence time after multiple doses (712 +/- 214 minutes) was longer (P less than 0.05) than after a single dose (527 +/- 95.8 minutes). Oral volume of distribution after multiple doses of clorazepate (1.76 +/- 0.647 L/kg) was smaller (P less than 0.02) than after a single dose (3.18 +/- 1.52 L/kg). Oral clearance after multiple doses of clorazepate (3.09 +/- 0.726 ml/min/kg) was less (P less than 0.001) than after a single dose (6.54 +/- 2.15 ml/min/kg). Absorption half-life after multiple doses (72 minutes) was longer (P less than 0.01) than after a single dose (33 minutes).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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