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Bioavailability and metabolism of prochlorperazine administered via the buccal and oral delivery route.

Author(s): Finn A, Collins J, Voyksner R, Lindley C

Affiliation(s): BDSI, Inc., 2501 Aerial Center Parkway, Suite 205, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA.

Publication date & source: 2005-12, J Clin Pharmacol., 45(12):1383-90.

Publication type: Comparative Study ; Randomized Controlled Trial

Prochlorperazine has been accepted as an effective antiemetic for more than 50 years; however, its therapeutic success has been limited by its low and variable absorption and high first-pass metabolism. A buccal dosage form of prochlorperazine has been developed. This article discusses 2 clinical studies conducted to characterize the single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of prochlorperazine and its metabolites after buccal administration. The results of these studies demonstrate that buccal administration of prochlorperazine produces plasma concentrations more than twice as high as an oral tablet, with less than half the variability. In addition to the metabolites, N-desmethyl prochlorperazine and prochlorperazine sulfoxide, 2 new metabolites, prochlorperazine 7-hydroxide and prochlorperazine sulfoxide 4'-N-oxide, were identified and quantitated. Exposure to metabolites after the buccal prochlorperazine formulation was approximately half that observed after the oral tablet. Buccal administration of prochlorperazine, twice daily, should enhance the therapeutic role of prochlorperazine in preventing and treating nausea and vomiting.

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