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Selective aldosterone blockade with eplerenone reduces albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Author(s): Epstein M, Williams GH, Weinberger M, Lewin A, Krause S, Mukherjee R, Patni R, Beckerman B

Affiliation(s): University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. murraye@gate.net

Publication date & source: 2006-09, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol., 1(5):940-51. Epub 2006 Jul 19.

Publication type: Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Previous studies have shown that the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone, in doses of up to 200 mg/d, reduces albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to ascertain whether lower doses of eplerenone (50 or 100 mg/d) co-administered with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril would produce a similar antialbuminuric effect while obviating the hyperkalemia observed previously. After open-label run-in with enalapril 20 mg/d, patients with diabetes and a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) > or = 50 mg/g were randomly assigned to receive enalapril plus one of three double-blind daily treatments for 12 wk: placebo, eplerenone 50 mg (EPL50), or eplerenone 100 mg (EPL100). After week 4, amlodipine 2.5 to 10 mg/d was allowed for BP control (systolic/diastolic BP < or = 130/80 mmHg). The primary study end points were the percentage change from baseline at week 12 in UACR and the incidence of hyperkalemia. Secondary end points included percentage changes from baseline in UACR at weeks 4 and 8 and changes from baseline in systolic and diastolic BP. Treatment with EPL50 or EPL100 but not placebo significantly reduced albuminuria from baseline. By week 12, UACR was reduced by 7.4% in the placebo group, by 41.0% in the EPL50 group, and by 48.4% in the EPL100 group (both eplerenone groups, P < 0.001 versus placebo). The incidences of sustained and severe hyperkalemia were not significantly different in any of the three treatment arms and did not differ on the basis of quartile of estimated GFR (all NS). For the secondary end points, both eplerenone treatment groups significantly reduced albuminuria from baseline as early as week 4 (P < 0.001), whereas placebo treatment (including enalapril) did not result in any significant decreases in UACR. Systolic BP decreased significantly in all treatment groups at all time points, but, generally, all treatment groups experienced similar decreases in BP. Co-administration of EPL50 or EPL100 with an ACE inhibitor as compared with an ACE inhibitor alone significantly reduces albuminuria in patients with diabetes without producing significant increases in hyperkalemia.

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