The effect of etanercept on suppression of the systemic inflammatory response in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Author(s): Don BR, Kim K, Li J, Dwyer T, Alexander F, Kaysen GA
Affiliation(s): Division of Nephrology, University of California Davis School of Medicine and the UC Davis Medical Center, Davis, CA, USA.
Publication date & source: 2010-06, Clin Nephrol., 73(6):431-8.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
BACKGROUND: Inflammation strongly predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. The negative acute-phase proteins, albumin and prealbumin are both inversely associated with mortality. Both albumin and prealbumin levels are decreased by inflammation. We carried out a pilot study to establish whether treatment with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha; receptor antagonist etanercept would be safe and result in improved levels of albumin and prealbumin in inflamed hypoalbuminemic (albumin < 3.8 g/dl, CRP > 8.0 mg/l) prevalent hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We excluded patients who had infectious risk (hepatitis C or B positive, HIV positive, purified protein derivative (PPD) positive or having a history of tuberculosis, having a tunneled dialysis catheter) to find patients having both hypoalbuminemia and inflammation. Of 433 less than 6% met the inclusion criteria. 10 patients were randomized to receive etanercept or placebo twice weekly for 44 weeks. RESULTS: There were no adverse infectious events. There was no significant difference for any of the measurements between the two groups. However there was a significant difference in the time-dependent effects of etanercept on prealbumin: increasing 20% in the etanercept group while decreasing in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a TNF-alpha; receptor antagonist appears safe in this selected population, despite the large increase in infectious risk observed in the dialysis patient population. The effect on surrogate markers of inflammation is small.