Sickle-cell disease and malaria: evaluation of seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Senegalese patients-a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Author(s): Diop S, Soudre F, Seck M, Gueye YB, Dieye TN, Fall AO, Sall A, Thiam D, Diakhate L
Affiliation(s): Department of Clinical Hematology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5002, Dakar-Fann, Senegal. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2011-01, Ann Hematol., 90(1):23-7. Epub 2010 Aug 7.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) patients are at high risk of developing malaria which is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in this disease. In Senegal, malaria transmission is high during rainy season, between July and October, and it was noted that sickle-cell crisis are frequent during this period. Then we carried out a double-blind randomized controlled trial to compare the impact of monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during the high-transmission season versus placebo on malaria incidence and morbidity of sickle-cell anemia. Sixty (60) SCD patients were randomized either to receive three intermittent preventive treatment (ITP) with SP or placebo using the random permutation table with nine elements. The drug was administrated as follows: sulfadoxine 25 mg/kg and pyrimethamine 1.25 mg/kg and this treatment was given once during the following months: September, October, and November. Overall four episodes of malaria disease were diagnosed, all these cases in the placebo arm. Thus, overall prevalence was 6.6% and there was no other case of malaria in the SP arm during the study period. Parasitological diagnosis confirmed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum in all four cases. No patient death was encountered during the study. SP treatment was well tolerated as only one patient (1.6%) in the SP arm reported pruritus. A significant reduction of patients' complaints (p = 002) and blood requirements (p = 0.001) was noted in the SP group; whereas, no impact was observed on vaso-occlusive crisis and hospitalization occurrence. Malaria prophylaxis by monthly intake of SP during the transmission period of the parasite reduced the prevalence of malaria and was safe in SCD patients leaving in malaria endemic area.