Effects of conjugated equine estrogens or raloxifene on lipid profile, coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in postmenopausal women.
Author(s): Dias AR Jr, Melo RN, Gebara OC, D'Amico EA, Nussbacher A, Halbe HW, Pinotti JA
Affiliation(s): Gynecology and Obstetrics Department School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Publication date & source: 2005-03, Climacteric., 8(1):63-70.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and raloxifene on lipid profile and hemostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized and parallel study was performed with 90 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 54 +/- 5 years, divided into three groups and submitted to daily therapy with either CEE 0.625 mg, raloxifene 60 mg or placebo for 4 months. The lipid profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were analyzed. RESULTS: CEE increased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from 49.0 to 56.8 mg/dl (p < 0.001), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) from 17.2 to 22.3 mg/dl (p < 0.001), and triglycerides from 86.0 to 111.7 mg/dl (p < 0.001), and decreased the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from 121.0 to 106.5 mg/dl (p < 0.001). The only significant effect of raloxifene was an increase in the levels of HDL-C from 46.0 to 47.8 mg/dl (p = 0.019). There was no significant reduction in LDL-C, from 115.5 to 110.2 mg/dl (p = 0.06), VLDL-C, from 21.7 to 20.0 mg/dl (p = 0.201), and triglycerides, from 108 to 100 mg/dl (p = 0.201). CEE decreased the levels of fibrinogen, from 370.5 to 326.8 g/l (p = 0.039) and the levels of antithrombin III, from 99.5 to 93.2% (p < 0.001). Raloxifene decreased the levels of fibrinogen, from 354.7 to 302.0 g/l (p = 0.009) and the levels of antithrombin III, from 102.4 to 98.5% (p = 0.039). CEE increased levels of protein C from 103.7 to 115.3 mg/l (p < 0.001) and raloxifene did not change the levels of protein C (107.9 to 105.1 mg/l; p = 0.158). CEE decreased the antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from 8.8 to 6.8 U/ml (p < 0.001), and of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) from 30.8 to 21.6 U/ml (p < 0.010), whereas raloxifene had no significant effect on either t-PA, from 9.6 to 9.2 U/ml (p = 0.235) or PAI-1 antigen levels, from 32.1 to 30.4 U/ml (p = 0.538). CONCLUSION Both CEE and raloxifene exert significant effects on the lipid and coagulation profile. CEE had a more significant effect on fibrinolysis than raloxifene. These effects may have a significant impact on the cardiovascular risk that needs to be confirmed in larger studies.