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Vitreous penetration of topical moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in humans.

Author(s): Costello P, Bakri SJ, Beer PM, Singh RJ, Falk NS, Peters GB, Melendez JA

Affiliation(s): Lions Eye Institute, Albany Medical College, 35 Hackett Boulevard, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Publication date & source: 2006-02, Retina., 26(2):191-5.

Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial

PURPOSE: To determine the vitreous penetration of the new fourth-generation topical fluoroquinolones moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3%. METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial comprising 12 eyes of 12 patients scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy between August 2003 and September 2003 was performed in a clinical practice. The patients were randomly assigned to receive topical moxifloxacin 0.5% (n = 6) or gatifloxacin 0.3% (n = 6). One half the patients in each antibiotic group received 1 drop every 15 minutes for a total of 3 doses starting 1 hour before surgery, and the other one half self-administered the antibiotic drop 4 times daily for 3 days before surgery and at 7 am on the day of surgery. Undiluted vitreous samples were obtained and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Either moxifloxacin 0.5% or gatifloxacin 0.3% was detected in the vitreous in all 12 patients in the study. There was no significant difference between the mean vitreous concentration of moxifloxacin 0.5% given over 1 hour preoperatively (0.012 +/- 0.011 microg/mL) and that given in the 3-day regimen (0.011 +/- 0.008 microg/mL) (P = 0.93). There was also no significant difference between the mean vitreous concentration of gatifloxacin 0.3% given over 1 hour preoperatively (0.001 +/- 0.0003 microg/mL) and that given over 3 days (0.008 +/- 0.006 microg/mL) (P = 0.11). Vitreous concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% in each eye were all lower than the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration for the commonest bacterial isolates causing endophthalmitis. With both dosing regimens, the mean vitreous concentration of moxifloxacin 0.5% was higher than that of gatifloxacin 0.3% administered at the same regimen, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Both topical moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% penetrated the vitreous in the uninflamed eye, but the vitreous concentrations attained were all lower than the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration for the commonest bacterial pathogens causing acute postoperative endophthalmitis.

Page last updated: 2006-11-04

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