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Short- and long-term cure rates of short-duration trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis.

Author(s): Clare S(1), Hartmann FA, Jooss M, Bachar E, Wong YY, Trepanier LA, Viviano KR.

Affiliation(s): Author information: (1)Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

Publication date & source: 2014, J Vet Intern Med. , 28(3):818-26

BACKGROUND: Long-duration beta-lactam antibiotics are used for empirical treatment in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. However, women with bacterial cystitis are treated with short-duration potentiated sulfonamides because longer courses of beta-lactams result in lower cure and higher recurrence rates. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Short-duration potentiated sulfonamide treatment is more efficacious than long-duration beta-lactam treatment in achieving clinical and microbiological cures in female dogs with uncomplicated bacterial cystitis. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight client-owned female dogs. METHODS: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Dogs were treated with TMP-SMX (15 mg/kg PO q12h for 3 days followed by a placebo capsule PO q12h for 7 days; Group SDS; n = 20) or cephalexin (20 mg/kg PO q12h for 10 days; Group LDBL; n = 18). Dogs were monitored for clinical and microbiological cure during treatment and at short- and long-term follow-up. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups in clinical cure rates after 3 days of treatment (89% SDS, 94% LDBL; P = 1.00) and 4 days (85% SDS, 72% LDBL; P = .44) or >30 days (50% SDS, 65% LDBL; P = .50) after conclusion of treatment or in microbiological cure rates 4 days (59% SDS, 36% LDBL; P = .44) or >30 days (44% SDS, 20% LDBL; P = .40) after conclusion of treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: We did not identify a difference in cure rates between short-duration sulfonamide and long-duration beta-lactam treatments in female dogs with uncomplicated cystitis. Long-term cure rates in both treatment groups were low. In some female dogs, "uncomplicated" bacterial cystitis may be more complicated than previously recognized.

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