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Effect of combination glipizide GITS/metformin on fibrinolytic and metabolic parameters in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects.

Author(s): Cefalu WT, Schneider DJ, Carlson HE, Migdal P, Gan Lim L, Izon MP, Kapoor A, Bell-Farrow A, Terry JG, Sobel BE

Affiliation(s): Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington 05401, USA. william.cefalu@uvm.edu

Publication date & source: 2002-12, Diabetes Care., 25(12):2123-8.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have implicated increased plasminogen-activated inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a marker or predictor of accelerated coronary atherosclerotic disease in type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine whether metabolic control, independent of its oral mode of implementation, affects PAI-1 in patients with marked hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 91 subjects were screened, subjected to a 4-week drug washout, and randomized to daily treatment with glipizide GITS (maximum 20 mg, n = 46) or metformin (maximum 2,550 mg, n = 45) as monotherapy. After monotherapy, combination therapy was initiated by adding the second agent to the regimen. Plasma glucose (fasting and postprandial), HbA(1c), fructosamine, and PAI-1 were assayed before and after randomization and sequentially thereafter in all subjects; hepatic glucose output (HGO) and abdominal fat distribution were each measured in a subset of subjects. RESULTS: Glycemic control was markedly impaired at baseline (mean HbA(1c) 10.4 +/- 0.2% glipizide GITS; 10.0 +/- 0.2% metformin) but improved comparably with each agent as monotherapy and in combination (P < 0.0001 vs. baseline), as assessed with meal tolerance studies, fructosamine values, and HGO. Body weight and abdominal fat distribution did not change significantly in either group. PAI-1 concentrations were extraordinarily high (5- to 10-fold more than normal) at baseline (202 +/- 12 ng/ml glipizide GITS; 201 +/- 13 ng/ml metformin) but declined comparably, and significantly, after treatment with either agent as monotherapy and decreased further with combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: When hyperglycemia is profound, increases in PAI-1 are also profound. Control of hyperglycemia with either glipizide GITS, an insulin secretagogue, or metformin as monotherapy comparably ameliorates elevated PAI-1.

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