Long-term effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria:Ten years of follow-up of Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Intervention Trial (PREVEND IT).
Author(s): Brouwers FP, Asselbergs FW, Hillege HL, de Boer RA, Gansevoort RT, van Veldhuisen DJ, van Gilst WH
Affiliation(s): Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Universitair Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2011-06, Am Heart J., 161(6):1171-8. Epub 2011 May 11.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
BACKGROUND: The PREVEND IT investigated whether treatment targeted at lowering urinary albumin excretion (UAE) would reduce adverse cardiovascular events. We obtained extended follow-up data to approximately 10 years to investigate the long-term effects of fosinopril 20 mg and pravastatin 40 mg on cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with UAE >15 mg per 24 hours. METHODS: The original PREVEND IT consisted of 864 participants and 839 survivors after 4 years. For every survivor, the primary end point determined by the combined incidence of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for cardiovascular morbidity was registered in several national databases and electronic hospital systems. RESULTS: Mean total follow-up of the extended PREVEND IT was 9.5 years (range 9.4-10.7 years). Four years of treatment with fosinopril was not associated with a reduction in the primary end point compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.61-1.24 [P = .42]) during long-term follow-up. After 9.5 years, subjects with a baseline UAE in the upper quintile (>50 mg/24 hours) had a total event rate of 29.5% and were at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease compared with less UAE (hazard ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.38-2.97 [P </= .01]). In addition, 4 years of fosinopril treatment resulted in a risk reduction of 45% (95% CI 6%-75% [P = .04]) in this group compared with placebo. Subjects originally assigned to pravastatin had no overall risk reduction in the primary end point (P = .99). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated UAE is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after 9.5 years of follow-up, with a doubling of the risk if the UAE is >50 mg per 24 hours. In this group, the benefits of 4-year treatment with fosinopril were sustained during posttrial follow-up for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We propose that UAE be used to estimate risk in the general population and that large clinical trials be designed to confirm the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor treatment may be beneficial in patients with mildly elevated UAE despite the absence of other comorbidities. Copyright (c) 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.