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Aminoglutethimide but not spironolactone enhances the anticonvulsant effect of some antiepileptics against amygdala-kindled seizures in rats.

Author(s): Borowicz KK, Czuczwar SJ

Affiliation(s): Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland. kornel@asklepios.am.lublin.pl

Publication date & source: 2005-07, J Neural Transm., 112(7):891-903. Epub 2004 Nov 3.

Aminoglutethimide (AGLD, an inhibitor of adrenal steroid synthesis) up to 5 mg/kg and spironolactone (SPIR, a mineralocorticosteroid antagonist and a weak antiandrogen) up to 50 mg/kg did not affect any seizure parameter in amygdala-kindled rats. AGLD (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced seizure activity in rats of both gender. The combination of AGLD (5 mg/kg) with phenobarbital (PB, applied at its subeffective dose of 15 mg/kg) significantly shortened motor seizure and afterdischarge duration in amygdala-kindled seizures. The combined treatment of AGLD (5 mg/kg) and clonazepam (CLO) at its subeffective dose of 0.01 mg/kg caused significant reduction of the seizure severity, seizure duration and afterdischarge duration. Finally, AGLD (5 mg/kg) proved ineffective upon the action of valproate (VPA) in this model of epilepsy. In contrast to AGLD, SPIR (50 mg/kg) did not affect the action of PB, CLO or VPA against kindled seizures in rats. AGLD did not alter the free plasma levels and brain concentration of PB or CLO, so a pharmacokinetic interaction does not seem probable. Among a variety of chemoconvulsants, bicuculline and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid reversed the effects of AGLD/PB and AGLD/CLO combinations. Aminophylline, kainic acid, strychnine and the glucocorticosteroid (hydrocortisone) were ineffective in this respect. Our data confirm the hypothesis that AGLD-mediated events may play a role in seizure activity and can affect the anticonvulsant activity of some conventional antiepileptic drugs against kindled seizures. Moreover, extrapolation of obtained results to clinical practice may indicate that patients with complex partial seizures may be safely co-medicated with AGLD or SPIR without the risk of worsening of seizure control.

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