Comparative safety and efficacy of cefdinir vs amoxicillin/clavulanate for treatment of suppurative acute otitis media in children.
Author(s): Block SL, McCarty JM, Hedrick JA, Nemeth MA, Keyserling CH, Tack KJ, Cefdinir Otitis Media Study Group
Affiliation(s): Kentucky Pediatric Research, Bardstown, USA.
Publication date & source: 2000-12, Pediatr Infect Dis J., 19(12 Suppl):S159-65.
Publication type: Clinical Trial; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
OBJECTIVE: Two dosage regimens of cefdinir were compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for the treatment of suppurative acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: This was an investigator-blinded, randomized, comparative, multicenter trial, in which tympanocentesis was performed in 384 patients, ages 6 months to 12 years, who had nonrefractory AOM. Patients were randomized to receive one of three 10-day treatment regimens: cefdinir 14 mg/kg daily (QD; n = 128); cefdinir 7 mg/kg twice a day (BID; n = 128); or amoxicillin/clavulanate 40/10 mg/kg/day divided for use three times a day (TID; n = 128). RESULTS: Of the 384 enrolled patients 303 were evaluable for clinical efficacy. Clinical success rates were statistically equivalent for the 3 treatment groups at the end of therapy: 85 of 102 (83.3%) for cefdinir QD; 81 of 101 (80.2%) for cefdinir BID; 86 of 100 (86%) for amoxicillin/clavulanate. Of the 197 evaluable patients from whom a susceptible pathogen was recovered, presumptive eradication rates at end of therapy were equivalent: 55 of 65 (84.6%), 54 of 66 (81.8%) and 55 of 66 (83.3%) for cefdinir QD-, cefdinir BID- and amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients, respectively. However, presumptive eradication rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae were significantly lower for cefdinir BID (55.2%) than for amoxicillin/clavulanate (89.5%; P = 0.0019) and marginally lower than for cefdinir QD (80%; P = 0.054). Diarrhea was the most common treatment-associated adverse reaction in all groups but was significantly more common in amoxicillin/clavulanate-treated patients (35%) than in patients who had been treated with cefdinir QD (10%, P<0.001) or cefdinir BID (13%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A 10-day regimen of cefdinir 14 mg/kg QD or 7 mg/kg BID was as clinically effective overall as a 10-day regimen of amoxicillin/ clavulanate 40/10 mg/kg/day divided TID in the treatment of tympanocentesis-confirmed, nonrefractory AOM in children. These data suggest that cefdinir QD may be a better alternative than cefdinir BID for refractory AOM. Both dosing regimens of cefdinir were associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse reactions than was amoxicillin/clavulanate.