Evaluation of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with opioids as injectable anesthesia for castration in dogs.
Author(s): Barletta M, Austin BR, Ko JC, Payton ME, Weil AB, Inoue T
Affiliation(s): Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
Publication date & source: 2011-05-01, J Am Vet Med Assoc., 238(9):1159-67.
Publication type: Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with butorphanol, hydromorphone, or buprenorphine (with or without reversal by atipamezole) in dogs undergoing castration. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, split-plot, blinded study. ANIMALS: 30 healthy client-owned sexually intact male dogs. PROCEDURES: Dogs (n = 10 dogs/group) were assigned to receive dexmedetomidine (15 mug/kg [6.82 mug/lb]) and ketamine (3 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) with butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]; DKBut), the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]; DKH), or the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with buprenorphine (40 mug/kg [18.18 mug/lb]; DKBup). All drugs were administered as a single IM injection for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for castration. At conclusion of the surgery, 5 dogs in each treatment group received atipamezole (150 mug/kg [68.18 mug/lb], IM), and the remainder received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM. Cardiorespiratory variables and quality of anesthesia were assessed. Supplemental isoflurane was administered to the dogs when anesthesia was considered inadequate during surgery. RESULTS: All drug combinations rapidly induced anesthesia. Dogs were intubated within 10 minutes after injection. Supplemental isoflurane was needed during surgery in 1, 3, and 4 dogs in the DKBup, DKBut, and DKH groups, respectively. Dogs that received atipamezole had a significantly shorter recovery time. Some dogs in each group had bradycardia and hypoxemia with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: DKBup was the most suitable injectable anesthetic combination used. Recovery was shortened by IM administration of atipamezole. There were minimal adverse effects in all groups.